Italy officially the Italian Republic is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north, it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia along the Alps. To the south, it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia–the two largest islands in the Mediterranean Sea – and many other smaller islands. The independent states of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within Italy, whilst Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland. The territory of Italy covers some 301,338 km2 (116,347 sq mi) and is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. With 60.6 million inhabitants, it is the fifth most populous country in Europe, and the 23rd most populous in the world.
Rome, the capital of Italy, was for centuries the political and religious centre of Western civilisation as the capital of the Roman Empire and site of the Holy See. After the decline of the Roman Empire, Italy endured numerous invasions by foreign peoples, from Germanic tribes such as the Lombards and Ostrogoths, to the Byzantines and later, the Normans, among others. Centuries later, Italy became the birthplace of Maritime republics and the Renaissance,[7] an immensely fruitful intellectual movement that would prove to be integral in shaping the subsequent course of European thought.
Through much of its post-Roman history, Italy was fragmented into numerous kingdoms (such as the Kingdom of Sardinia; the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies; and the Duchy of Milan) and city-states, but was unified in 1861,[8] following a tumultuous period in history known as "Il Risorgimento" ("The Resurgence"). In the late 19th century, through World War I, and to World War II, Italy possessed a colonial empire, which extended its rule to Libya, Eritrea, Somalia, Ethiopia, Albania, the Dodecanese and a concession in Tianjin, China.
Modern Italy is a democratic republic. It has been ranked as the world's 24th most-developed country and its Quality-of-life index has been ranked in the world's top ten.[11] Italy enjoys a very high standard of living, and has a high nominal GDP per capita. It is a founding member of what is now the European Union and part of the Eurozone. Italy is also a member of the G8, G20 and NATO. It has the world's third-largest gold reserves, eighth-largest nominal GDP, tenth highest GDP (PPP) and the sixth highest government budget in the world. It is also a member state of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Council of Europe, the Western European Union and the United Nations. Italy has the world's ninth-largest defence budget and shares NATO's nuclear weapons.
Italy plays a prominent role in European and global military, cultural and diplomatic affairs. The country's European political, social and economic influence make it a major regional power.The country has a high public education level and is a highly globalised nation.



Lugo town centre has in interesting variety of architectural styles from various periods of its history along the centuries.
The symbol of the town is the stronghold Rocca Estense (now the town hall headquarters); its features date back to the end of the XVI century and the keep of Uguccione della Faggiola was built in 1298. Inside there is an interesting hanging garden.
The monumental quadriporticus known as Pavaglione was designed by Giuseppe Campana and built between 1771 and 1783 to house the thriving silk worms market. Today the building hosts a six century old market and is the setting for cultural events and shows.
Nearby lies the Monument to Francesco Baracca (1936), hero of the Italian air force during the First World War; the homonymous museum is just a short walk away. It houses Baracca's Spad VII airplane with his coat of arms representing a rampant horse, which has inspired the symbol of Ferrari's sport cars.
Teatro Rossini was built between 1757 and 1759 according to the design of Francesco Petrocchi and Antonio Galli Bibiena completed it in 1761; it is considered a prototype of the Italian theatre. The theatre hosts a prestigious programme of plays, concerts and opera. In 1859 it was named after Gioacchino Rossini; the father of the Pesaro-born musician was from Lugo and the young Gioacchino received his early musical education here from 1802, at the Malerbi institute. Casa Rossini is in via Giacomo Rocca 14 and Villa Malerbi can still be seen in the town centre.
The central municipal library Biblioteca Trisi has a rich collection including manuscripts, incunabula and cinquecentine.
Lugo is home to a rich heritage of religious buildings. The mid XVIII century Baroque church of the Carmine houses the Callido and Gatti organs played by the young Gioacchino Rossini. Valuable paintings by Ignazio Stern are displayed in the rich Baroque church of the Suffragio and in the oratory of Sant'Onofrio. The church of the Collegiata was designed by Cosimo Morelli and has a 1471 cloister. The XV century painted terracotta sculpture of the “Mourning of the dead Christ” is in the church of San Francesco di Paola.
Not far from the centre, in via di Giù, lies the Jewish Cemetery; Lugo's community was very important from the XVI century to the past century. The XV century Oratory of Croce Coperta is just outside the town, on the south side; it is decorated with remarkable XV and XVI century Ferrarese school frescoes. The green area Parco del Loto is in the northern part of the town, near the old mills canal, an ideal cyclists route to discover the rich natural environment.
The IX century church of Campanile has a remarkable Byzantine bell tower and the church of Ascensione (1534) is decorated with beautiful frescoes still visible in the apse; both churches are located in the countryside outside Lugo.